Uzbekistan man

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Uzbekistan man

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The Arabs first invaded Mawarannahr in the middle of the 7th century through sporadic raids during their conquest of Persia.

Available sources on the Arab conquest suggest that the Soghdians and other Iranian peoples of Central Asia were unable to defend their land against the Arabs because of internal divisions and the lack of strong indigenous leadership.

The Arabs, on the other hand, were led by a brilliant general, Qutaybah ibn Muslim , and were also highly motivated by the desire to spread their new faith the official beginning of which was in AD Because of these factors, the population of Mawarannahr was easily subdued.

The new religion brought by the Arabs spread gradually into the region. The native religious identities, which in some respects were already being displaced by Persian influences before the Arabs arrived, were further displaced in the ensuing centuries.

Nevertheless, the destiny of Central Asia as an Islamic region was firmly established by the Arab victory over the Chinese armies in in a battle at the Talas River.

Despite brief Arab rule, Central Asia successfully retained much of its Iranian characteristic, remaining an important center of culture and trade for centuries after the adoption of the new religion.

Mawarannahr continued to be an important political player in regional affairs, as it had been under various Persian dynasties. In fact, the Abbasid Caliphate , which ruled the Arab world for five centuries beginning in , was established thanks in great part to assistance from Central Asian supporters in their struggle against the then-ruling Umayyad Caliphate.

During the height of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 8th and 9th centuries, Central Asia and Mawarannahr experienced a truly golden age. Bukhara became one of the leading centers of learning, culture, and art in the Muslim world, its magnificence rivaling contemporaneous cultural centers such as Baghdad , Cairo , and Cordoba.

Some of the greatest historians, scientists, and geographers in the history of Islamic culture were natives of the region.

As the Abbasid Caliphate began to weaken and local Islamic Iranian states emerged as the rulers of Iran and Central Asia, the Persian language continued its preeminent role in the region as the language of literature and government.

The rulers of the eastern section of Iran and of Mawarannahr were Persians. Under the Samanids and the Buyids , the rich Perso-Islamic culture of Mawarannahr continued to flourish.

The Samanids were a Persian state that reigned for years, encompassing a vast territoriy stretching from Central Asia to West Asia.

In governing their territory, the Samanids modeled their state organization after the Abbasids , mirroring the caliph 's court and organization.

The four grandsons of the dynasty's founder, Saman Khuda , had been rewarded with provinces for their faithful service to the Abbasid caliph al-Mamun : Nuh obtained Samarkand ; Ahmad, Fergana ; Yahya, Shash; and Elyas, Herat.

Ahmad's son Nasr became governor of Transoxania in , but it was his brother and successor, Ismail Samani who overthrew the Saffarids and the Zaydites of Tabaristan, thus establishing a semiautonomous rule over Transoxania and Khorasan, with Bukhara as his capital.

Samanid rule in Bukhara was not formally recognized by the caliph until the early 10th century when the Saffarid ruler 'Amr-i Laith had asked the caliph for the investiture of Transoxiana.

The caliph, Al-Mu'tadid however sent the Samanid amir, Ismail Samani , a letter urging him to fight Amr-i Laith and the Saffarids whom the caliph considered usurpers.

According to the letter, the caliph stated that he prayed for Ismail who the caliph considered as the rightful ruler of Khorasan.

The two sides fought in Balkh , northern Afghanistan during the spring of During battle, Ismail was significantly outnumbered as he came out with 20, horsemen against Amr's 70, strong cavalry.

Amr-i Laith's cavalry on the other hand, were fully equipped with weapons and armor. Despite fierce fighting, Amr was captured as some of his troops switched sides and joined Ismail.

Isma'il thereafter sent an army to Tabaristan in accordance with the caliph's directive. The Samanid army defeated the Zaydid ruler and the Samanids gained control of the region.

In the 9th century, the continued influx of nomads from the northern steppes brought a new group of people into Central Asia.

These people were the Turks who lived in the great grasslands stretching from Mongolia to the Caspian Sea. Introduced mainly as slave soldiers to the Samanid Dynasty, these Turks served in the armies of all the states of the region, including the Abbasid army.

In the late 10th century, as the Samanids began to lose control of Transoxiana Mawarannahr and northeastern Iran, some of these soldiers came to positions of power in the government of the region, and eventually established their own states, albeit highly Persianized.

With the emergence of a Turkic ruling group in the region, other Turkic tribes began to migrate to Transoxiana. The first of the Turkic states in the region was the Persianate Ghaznavid Empire , established in the last years of the 10th century.

The Ghaznavid state, which captured Samanid domains south of the Amu Darya , was able to conquer large areas of Iran, Afghanistan , and northern India apart from Central Asia, during the reign of Sultan Mahmud.

The Ghaznavids were closely followed by the Turkic Qarakhanids , who took the Samanid capital Bukhara in AD, and ruled Transoxiana for the next two centuries.

Samarkand was made the capital of the Western Qarakhanid state. The dominance of Ghazna was curtailed, however, when the Seljuks led themselves into the western part of the region, conquering the Ghaznavid territory of Khorazm also spelled Khorezm and Khwarazm.

Instead they made the Qarakhanids a vassal state. The Seljuk Empire then split into states ruled by various local Turkic and Iranian rulers.

The culture and intellectual life of the region continued unaffected by such political changes, however. Turkic tribes from the north continued to migrate into the region during this period.

In the late 12th century, a Turkic leader of Khorazm, which is the region south of the Aral Sea, united Khorazm, Transoxiana, and Iran under his rule.

Under the rule of the Khorazm shah Kutbeddin Muhammad and his son, Muhammad II , Transoxiana continued to be prosperous and rich while maintaining the region's Perso-Islamic identity.

However, a new incursion of nomads from the north soon changed this situation. This time the invader was Genghis Khan with his Mongol armies.

The Mongol invasion of Central Asia is one of the turning points in the history of the region. The Mongols had such a lasting impact because they established the tradition that the legitimate ruler of any Central Asian state could only be a blood descendant of Genghis Khan.

The Mongol conquest of Central Asia , which took place from to , led to a wholesale change in the population of Mawarannahr. The conquest quickened the process of Turkification in some parts of the region because, although the armies of Genghis Khan were led by Mongols, they were made up mostly of Turkic tribes that had been incorporated into the Mongol armies as the tribes were encountered in the Mongols' southward sweep.

As these armies settled in Mawarannahr, they intermixed with the local populations which did not flee. Another effect of the Mongol conquest was the large-scale damage the soldiers inflicted on cities such as Bukhara and on regions such as Khorazm.

As the leading province of a wealthy state, Khorazm was treated especially severely. The irrigation networks in the region suffered extensive damage that was not repaired for several generations.

Following the death of Genghis Khan in , his empire was divided among his four sons and his family members. Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, Mongol law of the Mongol Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Mawarannahr stayed in the hands of direct descendants of Chaghatai , the second son of Genghis.

Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol Empire as a whole remained strong and united.

In the early 14th century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts, the Chaghatai territory also was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence.

One tribal chieftain, Timur Tamerlane , emerged from these struggles in the s as the dominant force in Mawarannahr. Although he was not a descendant of Genghis, Timur became the de facto ruler of Mawarannahr and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iran, the Caucasus , Asia Minor, and the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea.

He also invaded Russia before dying during an invasion of China in Timur initiated the last flowering of Mawarannahr by gathering in his capital, Samarkand, numerous artisans and scholars from the lands he had conquered.

By supporting such people, Timur imbued his empire with a very rich Perso-Islamic culture. During Timur's reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction projects were undertaken in Samarkand and other population centers.

Timur also patronized scientists and artists; his grandson Ulugh Beg was one of the world's first great astronomers.

It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of the Chaghatai dialect , became a literary language in its own right in Mawarannahr, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature.

The greatest Chaghataid writer, Ali Shir Nava'i , was active in the city of Herat , now in northwestern Afghanistan, in the second half of the 15th century.

The Timurid state quickly broke into two halves after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Eastern Kipchak-speaking nomadic tribes called Taza Uzbeks who were living to the north of the Aral Sea.

In , the Uzbeks began a wholesale invasion of Mawarannahr. By the Uzbeks had completed their conquest of Central Asia [ citation needed ] , including the territory of the present-day Uzbekistan.

Of the states they established, the most powerful, the Khanate of Bukhara , centered on the city of Bukhara. The khanate controlled Mawarannahr, especially the region of Tashkent , the Fergana Valley in the east, and northern Afghanistan.

The Shaybanids initially competed against Iran for a few years, which was led by the Safavid Dynasty , for the rich far-eastern territory of present-day Iran.

Near the end of the 16th century, the Uzbek states [ citation needed ] of Bukhara and Khorazm began to weaken because of their endless wars against each other and the Persians and because of strong competition for the throne among the khans in power and their heirs.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Shaybanid Dynasty was replaced by the Janid Dynasty. Another factor contributing to the weakness of the Uzbek khanates in this period was the general decline of trade moving through the region.

This change had begun in the previous century when ocean trade routes were established from Europe to India and China, circumventing the Silk Route.

As European-dominated ocean transport expanded and some trading centers were destroyed, cities such as Bukhara, Merv , and Samarkand in the Khanate of Bukhora and Khiva and Urganch Urgench in Khorazm began to steadily decline.

The Uzbeks' struggle with Iran also led to the cultural isolation of Central Asia from the rest of the Islamic world. In addition to these problems, the struggle with the nomads from the northern steppe continued.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Kazakh nomads and Mongols continually raided the Uzbek khanates, causing widespread damage and disruption. In the beginning of the 18th century, the Khanate of Bukhara lost the fertile Fergana region, and a new Uzbek khanate was formed in Quqon.

An Uzbek Khanate existed in Maimana. In the 19th century, Russian interest in the area increased greatly, sparked by nominal concern over British designs on Central Asia; by anger over the situation of Russian citizens held as slaves; and by the desire to control the trade in the region and to establish a secure source of cotton for Russia.

As soon as the Russian conquest of the Caucasus was completed in the late s, the Russian Ministry of War began to send military forces against the Central Asian khanates.

Three major population centers of the khanates - Tashkent, Bukhara, and Samarkand — were captured in , , and , respectively.

Khiva became a Russian protectorate in , and the Khanat of Kokand finally was incorporated into the Russian Empire, also as a protectorate, in By , Russia had incorporated all three khanates hence all of present-day Uzbekistan into its empire, granting the khanates limited autonomy.

In the second half of the 19th century, the Russian population of Uzbekistan grew and some industrialization occurred.

To escape Russians slaughtering them in , Uzbeks escaped to China. In the s, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union. In response, many Central Asians, including Uzbeks or Samarkandites , were sent to fight the Germans in the area of Smolensk.

However, a number of them, including Hatam Kadirov and Zair Muratov , were captured, transported to the Netherlands , abused and killed.

Their bodies were buried in Rusthof cemetery near Amersfoort. For some time, these victims were not identified, apart from the fact that they were Soviets, until an investigation by journalist Remco Reiding.

The press in Uzbekistan practices self-censorship and foreign journalists have been gradually expelled from the country since the Andijan massacre of when government troops fired into crowds of protesters killing according to official reports and estimates of several hundred by unofficial and witness accounts.

Tashkent , the nation's capital and largest city, has a three-line rapid transit system built in , and expanded in after ten years' independence from the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are currently the only two countries in Central Asia with a subway system. It is promoted as one of the cleanest systems in the former Soviet Union.

For example, the station Metro Kosmonavtov built in is decorated using a space travel theme to recognise the achievements of mankind in space exploration and to commemorate the role of Vladimir Dzhanibekov , the Soviet cosmonaut of Uzbek origin.

A statue of Vladimir Dzhanibekov stands near a station entrance. There are government-operated trams and buses running across the city.

There are also many taxis, registered and unregistered. Uzbekistan has plants that produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo.

Afterward, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries. Train links connect many towns in Uzbekistan, as well as neighbouring former republics of the Soviet Union.

Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. Uzbekistan launched the first high-speed railway in Central Asia in September between Tashkent and Samarqand.

The new high-speed electric train Talgo , called Afrosiyob , was manufactured by Patentes Talgo S. Spain and took its first trip from Tashkent to Samarkand on 26 August The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces.

Until the late s, the plant was one of the leading aeroplane production centres in the USSR. With dissolution of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated; most of the workers were laid off.

Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing, there are rumours of production-enhancement plans.

With close to 65, servicemen, Uzbekistan possesses the largest armed forces in Central Asia. The military structure is largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the Soviet Army , although it is going through a reform to be based mainly on motorised infantry with some light and special forces [ citation needed ].

The Uzbek Armed Forces' equipment is standard, mostly consisting those of post-Soviet inheritance and newly crafted Russian and some American equipment.

The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear state , and supported an active program by the U.

The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3. Following 11 September terrorist attacks in the U.

Central Command 's request for access to an air base, the Karshi-Khanabad airfield, in southern Uzbekistan. However, Uzbekistan demanded that the U.

The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability.

Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid in , about a quarter of its military budget , the government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called " colour revolutions " in Georgia and Ukraine and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan.

When the U. In late July , the government of Uzbekistan ordered the United States to vacate an air base in Karshi-Kanabad near Uzbekistan's border with Afghanistan within days.

Karimov had offered use of the base to the U. This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West.

It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Union , formed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March by Tajikistan.

Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West. The month of October also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West.

The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two.

Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan.

Nevertheless, it is generally assumed among Uzbekistan's population that the government will stand firm in maintaining its close ties with the Russian Federation and in its theory that the — protests in Uzbekistan were promoted by the US and UK.

Karimova-Tillyaeva and her team have been instrumental in promoting inter-cultural dialogue by increasing European society's awareness of Uzbekistan's cultural and historical heritage.

Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. It is said, however, that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union.

When Uzbekistan gained independence in , there was concern that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region. The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith.

As of , over half of Uzbekistan's population was said to be Muslim, though in an official survey few of that number had any real knowledge of the religion or knew how to practice it.

However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqam , which arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital.

Shashmaqam is closely related to Azerbaijani Mugam and Uyghur muqam. The name, which translates as six maqams refers to the structure of the music, which contains six sections in six different Musical modes , similar to classical Persian traditional music.

Interludes of spoken Sufi poetry interrupt the music, typically beginning at a lower register and gradually ascending to a climax before calming back down to the beginning tone.

Uzbekistan has a high literacy rate , with about Students attend school Monday through Saturday during the school year, and education officially concludes at the end of the 12th grade.

There are two international schools operating in Uzbekistan, both in Tashkent: The British School catering for elementary students only, and Tashkent International School , a K international curriculum school.

Uzbekistan has encountered severe budget shortfalls in its education program. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow.

A large contributor to this decline is the low level of wages received by teachers and the lack of spending on infrastructure, buildings and resources on behalf of the government.

Corruption within the education system is also rampant, with students from wealthier families routinely bribing teachers and school executives to achieve high grades without attending school, or undertaking official examinations.

Uzbekistan's universities create almost , graduates annually, though the general standard of university graduates, and the overall level of education within the tertiary system, is low.

The Russian-language high education is provided by most national universities, including foreign Moscow State University and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas , maintaining campuses in Tashkent.

Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agriculture , as in most nations. There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance and Uzbek cuisine has been characterised as "noodle-rich".

Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is part of various Uzbek dishes. Uzbekistan's signature dish is palov plov or osh , a main course typically made with rice , pieces of meat , and grated carrots and onions.

Oshi nahor , or morning plov , is served in the early morning between 6 am and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration.

Other notable national dishes include shurpa shurva or shorva , a soup made of large pieces of fatty meat usually mutton , and fresh vegetables; norin and laghman , noodle-based dishes that may be served as a soup or a main course; manti , chuchvara , and somsa , stuffed pockets of dough served as an appetiser or a main course; dimlama , a meat and vegetable stew; and various kebabs , usually served as a main course.

Green tea is the national hot beverage consumed throughout the day; teahouses chaikhanas are of cultural importance. Black tea is preferred in Tashkent , but both green and black teas are consumed daily, without milk or sugar.

Tea always accompanies a meal, but it is also a drink of hospitality that is automatically offered: green or black to every guest.

Ayran , a chilled yogurt drink, is popular in summer, but does not replace hot tea. The use of alcohol is less widespread than in the West, but wine is comparatively popular for a Muslim nation as Uzbekistan is largely secular.

Uzbekistan has 14 wineries, the oldest and most famous being the Khovrenko Winery in Samarkand established in The Samarkand Winery produces a range of dessert wines from local grape varieties: Gulyakandoz, Shirin, Aleatiko, and Kabernet likernoe literally Cabernet dessert wine in Russian.

Uzbek wines have received international awards and are exported to Russia and other countries. Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov.

Abdoujaparov has won the green jersey points contest in the Tour de France three times. He would often 'sprint' in the final kilometre and had a reputation as being dangerous in these bunch sprints as he would weave from side to side.

This reputation earned him the nickname 'The Terror of Tashkent'. Chagaev defended his title twice before losing it to Vladimir Klitschko in Another young talented boxer Hasanboy Dusmatov , light flyweight champion at the Summer Olympics , won the Val Barker Trophy for the outstanding male boxer of Rio on 21 August Michael Kolganov , a sprint canoer, was world champion and won an Olympic bronze in the K-1 meter.

In and , gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a world bronze medal as an artistic gymnast in floor exercise, though he lives in and represents Israel in international competition.

Oksana Chusovitina has attended 7 Olympic games, and won many medals in artistic gymnastics. Some of those medals were won while representing Germany, though she currently competes for Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan is the home of the International Kurash Association. Kurash is an internationalised and modernised form of traditional Uzbek wrestling.

Football is the most popular sport in Uzbekistan. Uzbekistan's premier football league is the Uzbek League , which has consisted of 16 teams since The current champions are Lokomotiv Tashkent.

Pakhtakor holds the record for the most Uzbekistan champion titles, having won the league ten times. The current Player of the Year is Odil Akhmedov.

Humo Tashkent , a professional ice hockey team was established in with the aim of joining Kontinental Hockey League KHL , a top level Eurasian league in future.

Before Uzbekistan's independence in , the country was part of the Soviet Union football , rugby union , basketball , ice hockey , and handball national teams.

After independence, Uzbekistan created its own football , rugby union , basketball and futsal national teams.

Tennis is a very popular sport in Uzbekistan, especially after Uzbekistan's sovereignty in This tournament has been held since , and is played on outdoor hard courts.

Chess is quite popular in Uzbekistan. Other popular sports in Uzbekistan include basketball , judo , team handball , baseball , taekwondo , and futsal.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sovereign state in Central Asia. State emblem [1]. The next day was then declared a national holiday and a day off from work by the Uzbek government, thus became Uzbekistan's Independence Day.

Main article: History of Uzbekistan. Main article: Geography of Uzbekistan. See also: List of cities in Uzbekistan.

Main article: Politics of Uzbekistan. This section may be confusing or unclear to readers. In particular, the last paragraph seems to lack preceding context.

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Main article: Human rights in Uzbekistan. See also: Andijan Unrest. Main articles: Regions of Uzbekistan and Districts of Uzbekistan.

Largest cities or towns in Uzbekistan —. Main article: Economy of Uzbekistan. Main article: Demographics of Uzbekistan.

See also: Uzbeks. Main article: Religion in Uzbekistan. Main articles: Uzbek Jews and Bukharan Jews. Main article: Languages of Uzbekistan.

Main article: Communications in Uzbekistan. Main article: Transport in Uzbekistan. Main article: Armed Forces of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Main articles: Foreign relations of Uzbekistan and International organization membership of Uzbekistan.

Main article: Culture of Uzbekistan. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Music of Uzbekistan.

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The first assembled car on this day was a Chevrolet Lacetti which also was the 1,, assembled vehicle out of the production from UzAvtosanoat.

The annual production of GM Uzbekistan are , units. The M is currently intended only for export. In , about 5, employees were employed at the GM Uzbekistan assembly plant.

In , the Chevrolet Cobalt was added to the production line. Following a new agreement in , the joint venture GM Powertrain Uzbekistan opened an engine plant in Tashkent, kilometres The factory is GM's first engine plant in Uzbekistan.

It will produce more than , Ecotec 1. The joint venture was founded in August Subsequently, the employees at the plant were trained by the MAN staff to ensure a proper assembly of the vehicles and to and increase the theoretical knowledge of the workforce.

Ulugbek Rozukulov. The assembly of the vehicles began on the day when the joint venture contract was signed. SamAuto provides their assembly plant in Samarkand.

This units are also delivered as a CKD kit. According to plans of MAN they want to build up to units annual. UzAvtosanoat is the only truck manufacturer of Central Asia and plans to become a monopolistic company of the commercial vehicle sector.

In the first phase, the manufacturing should be adjusted to the various economic sectors such as the oil, gas and mining industry by using the local norms of the different targeted markets.

Despite the global economic crisis it is seen that these sectors will achieves a dynamic growth. Also the expansion of the infrastructure will increase the demand for automobiles and other vehicles.

Located in Samarkand , Uzbekistan , the plant manufactures buses and has recently launched a production line for Nissan cargo trucks. SamKochAvto produces 4 models of buses and 5 truck models, some of which are exported.

Plans have been announced for production of Suzukis. The company began production of vehicles on 19 July , [29] at the new assembly plant located in Asaka.

The company produced vehicles under the brand name Uz-Daewoo [30] [31] and is increasingly important in the markets of the CIS area.

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